chapter  4
23 Pages


Life in independent Warsaw (1921–39)
ByAntonia Bifulco

This chapter entitles 'industry', to show the hard work and efforts the citizens of Poland made to create a new and successful independent state. Whilst there were social problems, it seems to have been a time of optimism and relative stability. It provided Jurek with a happy childhood and his transition through school and university to adulthood. In many ways it was a creative time for him, as well as his city and his country. The Anglo-Irish family of the O'Neills is introduced in England, with author's grandfather Hugh also having numerous links to industry and engineering. The O'Neill family came to England during the Irish potato famine, where 1.5 million Irish people died and another million emigrated. Hugh's grandfather, Daniel O'Neill, was born in County Derry around 1820. In the famine he stowed away with cattle being transported on a boat bound for England.