chapter  4
40 Pages

Whose Development?

Contextualizing Sustainable Development
ByCarlos Alberto Torres

This chapter analyzes how and what development is taught within Education for Sustainable Development models, with specific questioning if economics is over-prioritized. It explores the central contradictions of neoliberalism and economics in teaching "development". Reproductive education within Weak States is essential for sustaining global hegemony because then teaching avoids questioning socio-environmental harmful effects from such "development". "Sustainability" is often brought into the argument to limit, within social-environmental justice models, "development" actions, but it is often overshadowed by economic development, especially within neoliberal development models in which processes of globalization are helping to normalized worldwide. Ecopedagogical lessons of development must include the discussions within and between private and public spheres. The chapter argues the need for planetary inclusion with biocentric problematizing, as well as infused within the critical discussions of global versus planetary citizenship models of education.