This chapter considers the composition of the Party. The dictatorship of the proletariat does not run itself; it can only work thanks to the forces of the Party and under the guidance of the Party. Any weakening of the Party will inevitably and promptly result in a weakening of the proletarian dictatorship. The Party is the supreme guiding energy in the State. The Central Committee and the Political Bureau are instruments of the Party. The growth of the Party in the villages is a terribly slow one. The chapter also considers the general growth of the intellectual level of the Party. It then refers to the antagonisms which determine the relationships between the Soviet Union and the capitalist States. The chapter examines the ratio between the membership of the Party and the number of the workers employed in large-scale industry.