The Problem of the Victory of Socialism in One Country Alone
The pamphlet Foundations of Leninism, which, dates from April 1924, contains two formulations of the problem of the victory of socialism in one country alone. The first formulation: It used to be supposed that the victory of the revolution in one country alone would be impossible, the assumption being that the conquest of the bourgeoisie could only be achieved by the united action of the proletarians of all advanced countries, or at any rate those in the majority of these. The second formulation: But the overthrow of the power of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of the power of the proletariat in one country alone does not, per se, mean the complete victory of socialism. This second formulation was directed against some of the critics of Leninism, against the Trotskyists who declared that the dictatorship of the proletariat "could not be maintained against conservative Europe" in one country alone, and in the absence of a proletarian victory in other lands.