Modern Chinese nation, nationalism, national identity and sport
The purpose of nation-building is to achieve the unification of the people within the state in order to remain politically stable and viable in the long run. Questions of nation, nationalism or national identity are ubiquitous and pervasive in the modern world. Modern Chinese nation and Chinese nationalist consciousness was sparked by China's defeats in a series of wars against Western imperialists and Japan in the 19th century. Chinese nationalism and national identity are also modern phenomenon, and the concept and origins of them are tangled with modern Chinese history of nation-building from the late Qing Dynasty at the beginning of the 20th century on. The inextricable relationship among nationalism, national identity and sport has also attracted the interests of researchers since the 1980s, especially with relation to mega-sports events, the Olympic Games, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games, Pan-Arab Games and Pan-American Games. Benedict Anderson has identified that interaction rituals are critical to the creation of imagined national communities.