chapter  9
28 Pages


The extrinsic motivational orientation that lies closest to intrinsic motivation is integrated regulation. Indeed, the lines between identified and integrated regulation, and between integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation, are quite blurry. Student motivation is a major concern of many physical educators. Although low student motivation seems to be more common at the middle and high school levels, it can also be a problem with some elementary children. Various motivational orientations are important because they differentially affect three types of consequences: affective, cognitive, and behavioral. Like intrinsic motivation, even some forms of extrinsic motivation correlate with adaptive consequences. The research indicates that more adaptive consequences occur with intrinsic motivation, but that the more self-determined extrinsic motivational orientations, especially identified regulation, can also result in positive outcomes. The social context is an important element in the motivational process in self-determination theory.