chapter  11
6 Pages


WithJoseph E. Fleckenstein

Tariffs for electricity vary greatly around the world and often within a country. Commercial and industrial customers who have a three-phase electrical service are charged for their service according to a tariff that is very different from the residential schedule. Customers of a three-phase service very often can reduce the charge for energy by one or more methods. With the more frequent appearance of the smart meters, the number of options is generally increasing. Shifting energy consumption to off-peak times is very often one of these options. Most customers of three-phase electrical power have electrical gear that is inclined to cause a lagging power factor. Motors, which are predominantly of the induction type, are the major cause of a lagging power factor. Transformers and some lighting ballasts can also be a cause. To reduce or eliminate power factor penalties, capacitor banks may be installed by a user.