An Advanced Insulin Bolus Calculator for Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs either when the pancreas can no longer produce sufficient insulin or when the body cannot process the insulin it does produce. The emerging absolute or relative deficiency of insulin results in a loss of glucose homeostasis, which causes hyperglycemia. Symptoms of high glucose levels include polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, blurred vision, tiredness, and loss of weight. This chapter presents an innovative insulin advisory system that aims to provide superior decision support compared to current insulin bolus calculators without increasing the burden to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus and clinicians. Insulin bolus calculators are simple decision support systems that consist of a relatively simple formula and use subject-specific metabolic parameters to calculate an insulin dose for a meal. Case-based reasoning is an artificial intelligence technique, which has been extensively applied in medicine.