Introduction to Networked Control Systems
In the past decade, significant advances in theoretical and applied researches have occurred in computation, communication, and control areas (Liou and Ray 1991). Control systems have made great strides from analog control (first generation) to digital (second generation) (Kumar 2009) with the appearance of digital computers in the 1940s. Similarly, wireless communication is preferred over wired communication as it allows mobility. In recent control applications, reinforcement learning, which is used for computational intelligence, has been introduced in complex control system design. Most recently, a communication network is combined with a modern control system to form a networked feedback control system due to the presence of a real-time communication network. This networked control system (NCS) (Halevi and Ray 1988; Branicky et al. 2000; Antsaklis and Baillieul 2004; Hespanha et al. 2007) concept is considered a third-generation control system (Kumar 2009). In NCS, a communication packet carries the reference input, plant output, and control input, which are exchanged by using a communication network among control system components such as sensor, controller, and actuators as shown in Figure 1.1.