Mobile instrumentation has been in use for decades ranging from telemetric navigation systems and aircra£ instruments to space shuttles and satellite systems. But today, combined with the communication technologies and microcomputers, it is Ÿnding wider proliferation in many consumer products and industrial applications. For instance, the GPS systems, the sensors on board the mobile telephones, coupled together with application so£ware make it possible to employ mobile instrumentation in many areas such as remote health monitoring, personal safety, and many other areas. In this chapter, as an example, the principles and the technology behind the mobile instrumentation of vehicular systems will be explained. Fully automated vehicles are being developed for applications in mining, industrial and personal transportation systems, underground and underwater explorations, and in military. In here, although one example is given in detail, the general principles will apply to many other and diverse ranges of applications. Some examples are also provided in chapters on radiolocation and radio navigation and in the chapter on wireless instruments.