Electromagnetic ¦owmeters have been widely used in industry for many decades. Unlike many other types of žowmeters, they o¥er true noninvasive measurements. œey can easily be installed in the processes. œese žowmeters can be used to monitor the reverse žows and are insensitive to viscosity, density, turbulences, and other žow disturbances. Electromagnetic ¦owmeters can rapidly respond tožow changes and exhibit linear characteristics for awide measurement range. In recent years, technological reŸnements have resulted in the production and usage of much more economical, accurate, and smaller instruments than the previous versions.