Energy use is coming under increasing scrutiny as the e¥ects of carbon dioxide on the environment are being factored into the cost. Consequently, thermal management is becoming a sophisticated science in modern society. It has become accepted that living spaces should be heated and cooled for maximum comfort of the occupants. Many industrial manufacturing processes require tight temperature control of material throughout processing toestablish the desired properties and quality control. Examples include control of thermal stresses in ceramics and thin Ÿlms, plasma deposition, annealing of glass and metals, heat treatment of many materials, Ÿber spinning of plastics, Ÿlm drying, growth of electronic Ÿlms and crystals, and laser surface processing.