Signal Integrity Applications
Because of the high volume of processing, transmission, and information storage, electronic systems presently require faster clock speeds to synchronize the integrated circuits. At present, the "speeds" on the connections of a printed circuit board (PCB) are up to 4 GHz or even faster. At these frequencies the behavior of the interconnects are more like that of a transmission line, and hence distortion, delay, and phase-shift effects caused by phenomena like cross talk, ringing, and overshoot are present and may be undesirable for the performance of a circuit or system. All this gives rise to a new emerging discipline known as signal integrity. In this discipline the correct timing and signal quality preservation preventing transients and false switching are studied in order to avoid excessive delays. This chapter obtains the transient behavior and the time-domain wave equations. It also studies the transient responses of the transmission line passive structures used as test circuits.