chapter  6
Electrical and Electrochemical Processes
Pages 40

Electrical and electrochemical processes refer to a group of nontraditional manufacturing processes that primarily use electricity or the effect of electricity to produce desired features by material removal or material addition. The specic processes included in this chapter are electro-discharge machining (EDM), electrochemical machining (ECM), electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM), electroforming, and electroplating. All these processes are noncontact processes in which the tool never makes any physical contact with the workpiece. Hence, they can be successfully

6.1 Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) .................................................................................. 174 6.1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 174 6.1.2 Process Description .................................................................................................. 176

6.1.2.1 Tool Materials ............................................................................................ 181 6.1.2.2 Tool Wear ................................................................................................... 182

6.1.3 Advantages and Limitations of EDM ....................................................................... 184 6.1.4 Research Issues and Recent Process Improvements ................................................. 185

6.2 Electrochemical Machining (ECM) ..................................................................................... 185 6.2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 185 6.2.2 ECM Process Description ........................................................................................ 186 6.2.3 Advantages and Limitations of ECM ....................................................................... 190 6.2.4 Research Issues and Recent Process Improvements ................................................. 190

6.2.4.1 Shaped Tube Electrolytic Machining ......................................................... 191 6.3 Electrochemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) ................................................................. 191

6.3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 191 6.3.2 Process Description .................................................................................................. 192 6.3.3 Advantages and Limitation of ECDM ...................................................................... 192 6.3.4 Research Issues and Recent Process Improvements ................................................. 193

6.4 Electroplating and Electroforming ....................................................................................... 193 6.4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 193 6.4.2 Process Description .................................................................................................. 194 6.4.3 Advantages and Limitations ..................................................................................... 197 6.4.4 Research Issues and Recent Process Improvements ................................................. 197

6.5 Environmental and Safety Issues .......................................................................................... 199 6.6 Concluding Remarks ............................................................................................................200 Questions ........................................................................................................................................200 Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................................... 201 About the Contributing Authors ..................................................................................................... 201 References ......................................................................................................................................202

applied to any conductive material irrespective of its mechanical properties (such as high hardness). A historical view of the above-mentioned processes, their mechanism/working principle, the merits and limitations of individual processes, recent process improvements, and their environmental effects are discussed in this chapter.