chapter  8
38 Pages

Chapter 8

Abstract ............................................................................... 394 8.1 Introduction ................................................................ 394 8.2 Ion-Implantation Equipment .................................... 395

8.2.1 Features and Composition .............................. 395 8.2.2 The Evolution of Ion-Implantation

Equipment ....................................................... 398 8.2.3 Medium-Current Ion-Implantation

Equipment ....................................................... 399 8.2.3.1 Outline of the Equipment ................. 399 8.2.3.2 Ion Source Modules ........................... 401 8.2.3.3 Ion Mass Selection ............................ 404 8.2.3.4 Ion Beam Acceleration ...................... 405 8.2.3.5 Ion Beam Line ................................... 406 8.2.3.6 Ion-Implantation Chamber ............... 412 8.2.3.7 Control Section .................................. 420

8.3 Topics of Concern in Ion Implantation ..................... 420 8.3.1 Transient-Enhanced Diffusion (TED) ............ 422 8.3.2 Metal Contamination ...................................... 423

8.3.3 Charging on the Substrate ............................. 424 8.4 Ion Beam Generation ................................................. 425 8.5 Conclusion ................................................................... 428 References ............................................................................ 429

ABSTRACT

Ion-implantation equipment is an indispensable tool in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. It also serves in the research and development of surface modification techniques for materials. In this chapter, (1) the desired components, performance and specifications of typical production-line ionimplantation equipment are described and (2) ion beam generation methods for elements ranging from hydrogen to heavy-mass elements are presented. Since these elements are found in both gaseous and solid phases, various methods must be used for producing beams of their respective ions.