chapter  5
50 Pages

Chapter 5

Abstract ............................................................................... 230 5.1 An Overview of Ion Implantation in Optical

Materials ..................................................................... 231 5.2 Ion-Implanted Optical Waveguides ........................... 234

5.2.1 Optical Barrier Waveguides ........................... 236 5.2.2 Quartz Waveguides ......................................... 238 5.2.3 Complex Waveguide Profiles .......................... 242 5.2.4 Applications ..................................................... 245

5.3 Reflectivity and Refractive Index Changes .............. 246 5.4 Reflectivity from Colloids and Nanoparticles .......... 247

5.4.1 Optical Responses with Particle Size ............ 250 5.4.2 Implanted Sunglasses ..................................... 256 5.4.3 Non-Spherical Nanoparticles .......................... 256 5.4.4 Annealing of Nanoparticles ............................ 257 5.4.5 Removal of Nanoparticles ............................... 258 5.4.6 Optical Non-Linearities of Metal

Nanoparticles ................................................... 260 5.4.7 Nanoparticles Formed by Multiple

Implants ........................................................... 262

5.5 Optical Absorption, Luminescence and Lasers ........ 264 5.5.1 Optical Absorption ........................................... 264 5.5.2 Luminescence During Implantation .............. 266 5.5.3 Post Implant Luminescence and Lasing ....... 267

5.6 Interactions of Implantation with Optical and Chemical Features .............................................. 269

5.7 Miscellaneous Optical Changes ................................ 270 5.8 Summary .................................................................... 271 References ............................................................................ 271

ABSTRACT

Optical effects of ion implantation have historically received far less attention than the electrical properties of semiconductors. This relates to the size of the commercial markets. Developments in photonics are increasing the optical market and the implantation methods offer many potential applications, as well as considerable information about the nearsurface structures. In many cases the implantations are the only route to device fabrication in some materials. Consequently the optical literature is advancing rapidly and in particular, the value of ion implantation for producing nearsurface optical waveguides has been recognized. In this example the approach is a nearly universal route for guide fabrication, with more than 100 examples so far, as well as excellent examples of waveguide lasers, guides for second harmonic generation, up-conversion, four-wave mixing and electro-optic devices. Equally, the implants can be used in other property changes such as control of luminescence and lasing. Changes in reflectivity and optical absorption, as well as modifications of surface chemistry, have been exploited for optical devices with well-established successes. Many of these topics had been introduced and their potential summarized in an earlier book in 1994 (which included one of the present authors). The present chapter restates some of the principles but also references the many new and successful advances that have developed since that time. There is even more emphasis on the topical aspects of ion-implanted nanoparticle

formation for use in photonics. For example, implantation of nanoparticles has generated the fastest electronic optical switching reported by any technique. The chapter underlines basic principles and includes many references to current literature, and indicates that the field is still rapidly expanding.