Digital Video Coding Standards: MPEG-1/2 Video
This chapter introduces the ISO/IEC digital video coding standards, Moving picture expert group (MPEG)-1 and MPEG-2, which are extensively using in the video industry for television broadcast, visual communications, and multimedia applications. MPEG-1 was developed for multimedia CD-ROM applications. Important features provided by MPEG-1 include frame-based random access of video, fast forward/fast backward searches through compressed bitstreams, reverse playback of video, and editability of the compressed bitstream. MPEG-2 is formally referred to as ISO/IEC specification 13818, which is the second phase of MPEG video coding solution for applications not originally covered by the MPEG-1 standard. The MPEG coding algorithm is a full-motion compensated discrete cosine transform and differential pulse code modulation hybrid coding algorithm. For low bit rate video coding, preprocessing is sometimes applied to the video signals before coding to increase the coding efficiency. Another important preprocessing is detelecine processing.