Work, Stress, and Mental Health
This chapter examines occupational and gender differences in experience of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) symptoms. It aims to test, based on the causal model of determinants of minor psychiatric impairment, the strength of causal factors in the model. The chapter compares the effects of determinants in the causal model for white-collar and blue-collar employees, and for women and men. Negative work, high levels of stress, low self-esteem, low personal mastery, and dissatisfaction with work are all characterized by high GHQ levels. Changes in stress scores were the largest determinant of GHQ levels for blue-collar workers, demonstrating the strong effects of high stress on GHQ scores. Level of stress at work could have important effects on mental health for the group. Self-esteem levels had a moderate effect on GHQ levels. The level of stress on the job, self-esteem, and a lack of consideration by management were all important for the mental health of blue-collar employees.