This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the connections between training and work, though it concentrates on the relationship between employers and training provision. It argues that whilst employers and employees both stand to gain from training, they view the training process and training outcomes from different angles. The book posits that in a complex world, economic and organisational competitiveness can only be achieved by meeting wider performance criteria, which in turn emphasises the reasons for Britain's historical failure to train both employees and managers within a traditionally voluntaristic training and industrial relations framework. It examines patterns of training expenditure in the survey companies and seeks evidence that firms are taking a more strategic perspective with regard to training. The book also draws upon the accumulated evidence.