Organizing the data
Prior to starting the formal statistical analyses, it is important to organize the data file in a manner where the correct statistical analyses will be performed. For simplicity and ease of use, generating the data set in Microsoft Excel is the recommended. When performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical procedures the investigator has to be cognizant of how the data are arranged. The only caveat is that dummy variables are needed when there are three or more levels of categorical variable such as in our group example (i.e., young, middle-aged, and old). There are a number of ways to import the Excel file into SPSS and, therefore, people would refer the reader to the SPSS manual which will describe step-by-step procedures to successfully accomplish this goal. One simple approach is to open SPSS and once the empty data sheet appears, drag-and-drop the Excel file into that data sheet and select the options presented in the dialogue box that will appear.