This chapter traces the general planning process, overview the general administrative system, and offer an analysis of planning and programming for the young child. Planning as a systematic process began in the post-independence era in 1947. The challenge in planning was to devise cohesive five-year plans based on the diversity of economy and the welfare needs of India's people. Planning is phased from one five-year period to another, working on the backlog of unfulfilled commitments, such as the current backlog in primary school education. Regional planning and administration is made elastic to fit each state's need and financial capacity, leading to differing emphases in state programs. The Planning Commission, being the apex advisory cell, articulates policy with plan. Fiscal resources are estimated, priorities ranked, and programs are planned within policy parameters. Planning constitutes both future-orientated planning for a social democratic welfare state and short-term planning, which is flexible to meet urgent requirements.