chapter  3
16 Pages

History of retaining wall design

Fig.1.Planandcross-sectionoftheNewgrangeCairn(3200BC):1gravepassage;2chamber(dottedlineshowsfinalshapeaftereventualoverturningofretainingwallshownbydetailA;3smallroundedstones;4layersofturf

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Fig.2.Laboratorytesttomeasuretensilestrengthofasquareofturf(Simecsol,Paris)

soilandcollapsedoutwards.Someonethenhadtheideaofinsertingamat ofwovenreedslaidinabedofsandeveryfiveorsixcoursesofbrickwork. Thematneutralisedtheoutwardthrustandthesanddrainedawaythewater exudedbytherawbricksasthestructurerosehigherandhigher.Cables madefromwovenplantfibreshavealsobeenfoundinthebedsofsand.