The Pope as Judge
In the twelfth century, increasingly the pope's position as universal ordinary was becoming a reality. The right of the Roman church to judge any case at any stage was a profound expression of the papal plenitude of power. The pope confirmed to Lleida everything that it possessed between the Rivers Alcanadre and Cinca. The distance of Roman authority from many of the events that it judged increased the possibility of undetected forgeries and fraud. Judges delegate displayed a tendency at times to excuse themselves from difficult or distant cases. The new judges' task was made impossible because, by the time they had issued the necessary summonses, both Ricardo and Gombau were on their way to Rome to put their arguments before the pope. The greatest number of questions addressed to the pope, however, were raised concerning the lands on which monastic houses and military orders were to pay tithes.