'Chiokka / Hell Song' - The Afterlife, Gods, Ghosts and Belief
Central to the proceedings of Ogu Kut is the idea that everyone has a soul (hon, yonghon, honbaek, nokk) that is eternal, and that this soul leaves the individual's body at the point of death.1 According to the ritual texts and practices of this ritual, there are then three possible outcomes for the dead person's soul:
• becoming a ghost (kwishiri), existing in a frustrated state in this world and causing trouble for the living
• going to the Buddhist paradise (chongt 'o, kungnak segye, or soch 'onsoyon 'guk) and becoming an ancestral deity (chosang shin)
• going to one of the ten Buddhist hells (chiok).