Facilitation concerns helping people to come to a view about what they believe they should do in the cause of improvement, whether working individually or in groups. Facilitation does not involve manipulating them into an acceptance of a course of action that has been predetermined by someone else. Though the whole process of 'pure' facilitation is very powerful, and works very successfully in most cases, it has to be said that there are occasions when it does not. There are instances where those that we are dealing with are intractable and are not prepared to work on improvement, or they refuse to see issues in any way other than their own and will not work with a third party. An example of 'facipulation' at an individual level concerns the managing director of an organization that we were assisting with the introduction of a Total Quality process.