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Many researchers in Europe consider that it is Islam's status as a minority religion and culture within a democratic and secularized context which is the decisive element in the transformation of both Muslim practices and their relationship to Islam. Such an approach, however, often amounts to no more than a description of the modalities according to which Muslims adapt to their new social context (see Lewis and Schnapper, 1994; Shadid and Van Kongingsveld, 1995; 2002a; 2002b). This univocal approach takes for granted the political features of the host societies, and fails to look into the transformations of secularism, nationalism and multiculturalism produced within the dominant societies as a result of the establishment of a new religion and new cultures.