At the start of the 21 '1 that was marked by a persistent search for modernity, and revolutions to achieve
and modernization. t In the first half of the century China witnessed successive chaotic periods of civil wars between the Kuomintang the Nationalist and the Communist of China (CPC), the invasion, and civil wars between the KMT and the CPC. Under the CPC China started its industrialization frrst based on the Soviet model in the 1950s and then on Mao's self-reliance model in the 1960s. Only in the late 1960s and the 1970s did China find an opportunity to look towards the West for technology, and investment for its modernization. 2
.tu<•v~-''"1". seized the opportunity and launched economic reforms and OPlm-<llO<>r programs in 1978. called his reform 'The Second Revolution'
1993, p.l 13). The first revolution was initiated by Mao Zedong in the countryside. Mao organized peasants into an arn1ed circling the cities under the KMT control and ev1mtlllall)
the KMT troops out of the mainland. initiated the second revolution also in the rmmn""'r<<l the agricultural collective institution: the people's commune, achievements of Mao's first revolution, the reform momentum into urban areas, to the abandonment of the socialist economic system: the command economy, another achievement of Mao's first revolution. China's economic reforms and open-door policy were thus described as the restoration of capitalism ( Chossudovsky, 1986, 1).