Experiments and results
The participants in Experiment 1 were 123 fi rst-year undergraduate students from GZU. Participants were enrolled in 13 degree programs, each taking an introduction to accounting subject. A power analysis using the Gpower computer program (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner, 2007) indicated that a total sample of 40 people would be needed to detect large effects (d = .8) with 97 percent power using a t test between means with alpha at .05. A pretest questionnaire was used to collect information concerning each participant’s gender, age, language, and knowledge of accounting. In total, students (51 percent male and 49 percent female) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. There were 41 students in the split-attention group (Group 1; 22 males and 19 females, M = 22 years old, SD = 2.22), 40 students in the integrated group (Group 2; 21 males and 19 females, M = 20 years old, SD = 1.48), and 42 students in the self-management group (Group 3; 20 males and 22 females, M = 21 years old, SD = 2.80) who participated in the study. One student in Group 1 and two students in Group 2 did not complete both Experiment 1 and
2. Their responses to Experiment 1 were not included in the analysis. Students participated voluntarily in the study and were not paid for participation. The distribution of participants within each instructional group by gender and fi rst language is shown in Table 7.1 .