chapter  22
Human and Organizational Risks
Pages 8

This chapter offers a simplified view of organizations, processes, and humans. An organization is an administrative or business structure that is formed for a particular purpose. Processes and policies guide management and staff to better align their individual actions with the goals of the organization. Human managers and staff execute processes and follow policies to advance the purpose of the organization. The quality model for cloud-based applications clarifies the practical distinction between process risks and human error risks. The industry has traditionally lumped both human process and error risks into the general notion of procedural error, which is defined as "an error that is the direct result of human intervention or error". In addition to human process and human error risks, there are higher-level organization and incentive design risks. Organizational culture may also discourage organizations from consider rare but high-impact black-swan risks or other hazards.