This chapter explores the ways in which design influences the perceptions and actions of students and teachers. It discusses the changing experiences of students and teachers in settings where the mutual shaping of design and practice has taken place over time. The chapter presents the perceptions of students and teachers in schools in which there may or may not have been contradiction between practice as designed and practice as enacted. In England, the National Audit Office has brought public attention to the parlous state of the school building estate. They point to three concerns: the condition of the school estate; the rising demand for school places; and problems with delivering capital projects. Different approaches to school leadership and management give rise to distinctive school cultures which in turn make differences in the use and adaption of a school building.