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When signals reach the distal axonal region, a second process called synaptic transmission is initiated. Synaptic transmission is responsible for propagation of the signal to the next neuron. In this process a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger), is released from the distal region (i.e., presynaptic neuron). Once released (i.e., exocytosis of vesicles), the neurotransmitter moves across the synaptic cleft (a microscopically small space) to bind to receptors on the membrane surface of the postsynaptic neuron.