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Step 4: Divide the first entry of column 4 by 16 (i.e., 2K) and the remaining 21(-1). The corresponding entries in column 4 of Table

Step 4: Divide the first entry of column 4 by 16 (i.e., 2K) and the remaining entries by 8 (i.e., 21(-1). The corresponding entries in column 4 of Table 4.4.1 are the minimum variance unbiased estimates for all 2K — 1 effects in standard order (Box et al., 1978). The standard order for all 2" — 1 effects is average, 1, 2, (12), 3, (13), (23), (123), 4, (14), (24), (124), (34), (134), (234), and (1234). Readers can verify that the entries for various effects in Table 4.4.1, obtained from Yates's algorithm are exactly the same as those provided in Table 4.2.3.