Thermal and electrical properties of soils
This chapter discusses the electrical properties of soil-water system. Electrical energy existing in the soil–water system plays an important role because all other energy such as mechanical, thermal or magnetic hinges on the characteristics of electric energy. The interaction between soil and electricity depends on soil particle size, mineral structure, mineral surface conditions and characteristics of pore fluid, as well as ion exchange capacity and properties of electrolytes. Soil is very sensitive to local environmental factors, especially climatic variables such as: precipitation, wind, evaporation, groundwater table fluctuation, and frost penetration. These factors directly or indirectly relate to a thermal, electric, and magnetic influence on the engineering behavior of soil. The chapter discusses the engineering problems for frozen soil including frost action, frost depth, and frost heave. Frost action involves the freezing and thawing of moisture in materials and the resultant effects on these materials or the structures with which they are associated.