chapter  6
25 Pages

Self-Conscious Emotions

ByPaula M. Niedenthal, François Ric

This chapter reviews the self-evaluative emotions. These emotions, which include guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride, and hubris, are largely related to evaluations of the self, and are based on comparisons to personal standards, as well as moral values. The chapter examines social comparison emotions. Social comparison emotions emerge from the ability to be aware of and think about the self, as well as the ability to compare the self to others. It considers in depth, envy and jealousy, both have these characteristics. The experience of self-conscious emotions requires that an individual is first capable of distinguishing the self as physically distinct from others. Self-conscious emotions rely on the cognitive abilities involved in having a sense of self and on self-reflection and evaluation. Embarrassment-provoking situations are usually more sudden and unexpected in their onset than are situations that elicit other self-conscious emotions. Guilt and shame are punishing states, with distinct feelings and action tendencies.