Application of Fingerprinting Techniques in Authentication and Traceability of Fruits and Vegetables
This chapter discusses different analytical approaches for the detection of fruits and vegetables based on their geographical origins. These analytical techniques have been subdivided into four different types based on their principles: mass spectrometry techniques, spectroscopic techniques, separation techniques, and other techniques. Fingerprinting is the combined use of a variety of analytical techniques or methods. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry in food fingerprinting are: analysis of food components, determination of water content, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is a widely used technique in the determination of adulterants in food material. UV fingerprinting techniques work on the principle of UV absorption spectra and they reflect the transitions of valence electron energy levels of elements. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry works on the principle of identification of chemically identical compounds on the basis of their isotopic contents. Gas chromatograph techniques have been widely applied for the authentication and identification of a wide range of food for quality prediction.