chapter  7
Gendering Policy Debates: Welfare Reform, Abortion Regulation, and Trafficking
Pages 19

Foroverthirtyyears,organizationsandindividualsinthefeministmovementin theUnitedStateshavesoughttoinfluencegovernment.Bythe1990s,themovementactivistshadformedanumberofstrong,professionalorganizationswith closetiestoeachotherandtofeministsinsidethelegislatureandgovernment agencies(Costain1992;Spalter-RothandSchreiber1995).Whathasbeenthe impactofthiswomen'spolicynetworkonpoliticsandpolicymaking?Thereare variouswaystotrytoassesstheimpactofsocialmovementsongovernment (Gamson1975).Oneistolookatthecontentoflawspassed.Anotheristoseeif governmentleadersrecognizeandreceivemovementleadersaslegitimaterepresentativesofaconstituency,aproceduralresponse.Thischapterfocusesonathird typeofresponsethatisanimportantlinkbetweenmovementactors'demandson theonehandandpolicycontentandproceduralresponsesontheother:substantiverepresentationofmovementdemandsinthepolicymakingprocess.Substantiverepresentationistheinclusionofagroup'spolicypreferencesandissuesinthe agendaofgovernment(Pitkin1967).Forthefeministmovement,suchrepresentationinvolvesmorethanjustputtingtheirissuesontheagenda;itmeanstheinclusionoftheirgenderideasintheframeworkofthedebatesontheseissues.