The School as an Organization
This chapter discusses the school as an organization, focusing on formal aspects of the internal functioning of schools. In our systems model, the organization represents the actual school or system being considered. The chapter focuses on the internal organization more than on the interaction of the organization with its environment. The relation of the organization to the systems model is discussed, summarizing structural components of educational systems such as classrooms and positions of participants within the school. Two models of school organization are discussed: bureaucracy and loosely coupled. With the growth of schools has come more centralized decision making. However, challenges from local residents of huge bureaucratic systems have forced school officials to heed demands for greater local representation. Charter School are a rapidly expanding group of schools, publically funded but independent of most local school district authority. With their own boards of trustees and relative autonomy, the originating idea was that they were free to innovate and experiment.