The Arab uprisings and domestic political actors
This chapter investigates the effect of the Arab uprisings on Tunisian and Moroccan political actors and how this in turn influenced the implementation of the ENP on the ground. It argues that the uprisings ultimately affected the implementation of the ENP programs in Morocco and Tunisia, insofar as they differently shaped the domestic political actors' agenda and key goals in the two countries. Political parties had a limited role in both protests and constitutional debates. Only small left political parties participated in the 20 February Movement, with the major opposition parties such as the USFP and the Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD) remaining outside the fray of demonstrations. The political landscape as redesigned by the 2011 protests considerably affected the implementation of the ENP in Morocco and its general performance. The Tunisian or 'Jasmine' Revolution was the first spark that fuelled the Arab uprisings, by indirectly igniting further revolts across the region.