This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of the book. This book focuses on two Maghreb countries that allow light to be shed on the state of the relations between the EU and its Southern neighbourhood after the convoluted transformations of the past years. It demonstrates that the implementation of the reforms promoted by the EU in a neighbouring country often follows the very same internal dynamics that characterise the country's normal policy-making processes. The analysis of domestic actors in Tunisia and Morocco and the way they can make a difference for implementation performance leads to new considerations on the implementation of the ENP in the Mediterranean. The Joint Communication on the review of the ENP released in November 2015 put the EU's own interdependence with the neighbours into sharp focus with the purpose of building more effective partnerships.