Decolonization and the global south
This chapter traces the evolution of the global South from its colonial past to the present. World War II accelerated the decolonization movements in India and elsewhere. By 1945, Great Britain, governed by Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the Labour Party became willing to accept Indian independence. The first generation of African and Asian leaders sought to avoid involvement in the Cold War by adopting the policy of nonalignment, while pursuing economic and political development at home. European imperialism resumed in the nineteenth century, especially in Asia and Africa. As decolonization spread elsewhere in Africa in the 1960s, Portugal refused to budge. The largest of Europe's early empires, however, was Spain's, which at its peak included all of Central and South America, Mexico, much of North America including Florida, Texas, the lands along the Mississippi River, the American Southwest, and many Caribbean islands.