chapter  X
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THE FOUNDATIONS OF ISLĀM

ISLAM, ' resignation to the will of God ', denotes the religion taught by Muhammad, the Prophet. In it is included the observance of five primary duties ('ibadat) : bearing witness that there is but one God ; reciting daily prayers in His honour ; giving the legal alms ; observing the feast of Ramazan ; making the pilgrimage to the holy places at least once in the lifetime of the worshipper. Other definitions of these duties include: the recital of the Kalima or Creed; Namaz or prayer ; Roza or fasting ; Zakat or almsgiving ; Hajj or pilgrimage. 1 In Persia they are understood to include six obligations incumbent on every believer : Salat 2 or prayer ; Sa'im or fasting ; Hajj or pilgrimage ; Khams, tithes, literally ' a fifth part ' ; Zakat or alms ; and, under certain circumstances, the necessity of the .Jihad or war against the infidels. 3 Iman or belief includes six principles : belief in God, in His angels, in His books, in His apostles, in the Last Day, in predestination by God. 'Amal or practice includes : recital of the Creed ; prayer at the five stated periods during the day ; the observance of the Ramazan feast ; the pilgrimage ; the legal alms. An Indian Musalman writer states that the chief articles of the Faith are : belief in the Unity of God ; in His angels ; in His books, these including with the Muhammadan the Christian and .Jewish scriptures, the followers of the two latter religions being known as Ahlu-1-kitab, 'believers in the books ' ; in His prophets ; in His government of the

world ; in good and evil as coming from Him ; in the Day of Resurrection. 1 Din, another important term, has· a wide range of meanings which may be summed up as ' practical religion'.