FOOD AND DRINK
McsALlllANS submit to few of the vexatious restrictions which the rules of caste impose upon Hindus, but their association with this people suggests taboos in the use of certain foods, some of which are of foreign origin and come down from the early days of Islam. According to the Kansu-l-daqdiq and the Shar'-i-waqiat, the flesh of certain animals is unlawful, that of others prohibited. The flesh of those that are clovenfooted, those that chew the cud, and are not beasts of prey, is lawful food, such as that of sheep and goats, deer, antelopes, the hare, the rabbit, the cow, bull, female and male buffalo, &c. Those that are neither cloven-footed nor chew the cud, like the jackass, &c., are unlawful. Others which though cloven-footed do not chew the cud, or those which have merely canine teeth, arc unlawful, such as the hog, wolf, jackal, tiger, bear, hyaena, and the like. 'That which dieth of itself, and blood and swine's flesh, and that over which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, is forbidden to you. But he that shall partake of them by constraint, without lust or wilfulness, no sin shall be upon him. Verily God is Indulgent, Merciful '. 1 Although the Imam ' Azam, Abu Hanifa of' Kflfa, has pronounced horseflesh unlawful, his disciples contradict this, and, therefore, some considering it improper (makruh), that is to say, things from which the Prophet abstained yet did not forbid to others, eat of' it. But most people regard it as unlawful food. Of birds, all those that catch prey with their claws or tear it with their teeth. arc unlawful, such as the sparrow-hawk (shikra, micronisus badius), the peregrine falcon (hahri, falco peregrinus), and the goshawk (haz, astur palumharius), the kite, crow, vulture, bat, kmgcrow,
owl, and others of a like kind. Such as do not seize their prey with their talons, but pick up food with their bills are lawful, such as the paddy-bird (bagula, baglil, ardea torra), duck, peacock, partridge, quail, goose, snipe, dove, pigeon, and the like. Locusts may be eaten, but all creeping things, like scorpions, snakes, earthworms, and so on, are unlawful. Those that live in water are all unlawful except those with scales and the eel (Mm), the lamprey (tanbu), the Katarna, a littlevalued fish, which are improper but not prohibited, and those that do not weigh less than a Dirham or drachm or more than 1½ Man, 120 lb. Others which do not answer these conditions are unlawful, such as alligators, turtles, frogs, crabs, and the like. Shrimps, however, are only prohibited (makruh) and may be eaten. Fish found dead in water are unlawful food, but if they be taken out and die afterwards, this is held to be equivalent to ritual slaughter (zabh).