Beyond Paris, towards energy justice
The movement's internal struggles were marginal to the centre of the political contest in Parliament. However, the ways in which environmental campaigners responded at the time illustrate important dimensions of the strategic dilemmas associated with technocratic campaigns to influence carbon prices. In different ways, all environmental campaigners are grappling with the difficult task of trying to compel the state to institute a limit on carbon in the context of fossil fuel dependence. Intense political focus was placed on carbon targets and renewable technology options. The grassroots campaign preoccupation on deep emissions cuts and 100% renewable energy was the main difference between grassroots organisations and the established environmental non-government organisations. When reflecting on the challenges of securing the passage of a carbon price, campaigners often raised issues of discursive framing of the pro-carbon price campaign over 2011. In a new iteration of the 350 campaign, fossil fuels have become symbolic and material sites of contestation.