Surface Metrology in Engine Quality
This chapter reviews the accurate precise measurements using surface metrology techniques in exploring and investigating the surface characteristics of engine materials in the range of micro- and nanometer scale. There are many parameters influencing the engine performance. The chapter discusses the surface characterization of the cylinder wall, piston, and piston ring material using metrology techniques to understand the quality of surface performance. The advanced soft metrology techniques include coordinate measuring machines (CMM), roundness testing facilities, surface roughness devices and optical methods used at micro- and nanometer scales. The atomic force microscope (AFM) measures the surface characteristics and can measure the small depth of the produced structures exactly; an algorithm to engrave "invisible" small 3D structures in surfaces in closed loop control is possible. New technologies in surface coating, especially in rubbing rotating elements of engine materials have been applied commercially.