Advanced Measurement Techniques in Surface Metrology
Surface characterization using advanced accurate and precise nanomeasuring techniques is important scientific tools especially in the automotive engineering, tribology, biotechnology, and criminology. Because of this diversification, there are more advanced metrology techniques using stylus, optical, and non-optical methods used for analyzing the surface characteristics, where each technique has its own specific applications. The 3D surface metrology techniques have been rapidly developed in the last decade attributed to the advanced computational software technology. Mechanical contact stylus, optical and non-optical measurement techniques achieved significant progress in many different applications. This chapter investigates novel techniques used such as coordinate measuring machine (CMM), roundness testers, roughness measurement instrument, white-light interferometer (WLI), confocal optical microscopy, digital holography, scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and computed tomography (CT) methods. One of the major challenges when moving to smaller measurements is selecting the suitable metrology technique for the desired measurement. These different advanced techniques have currently advantages meeting the samples specifications and required properties.