Artificial Intelligence Challenged by Uncertainty
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on the study of uncertainty: its representation, reasoning, and simulation of human intelligence; on basic certainty in human intelligence; and how uncertainty challenges artificial intelligence. It concerns the representation of uncertain knowledge, and proposes a cognitive model-cloud model for qualitative-quantitative dual transformation. The book establishes physical methods for the discovery of uncertainty knowledge and makes use of cloud computing, natural language understanding, image recognition, data mining, intelligent control, social computing, and so on. It also introduces entropy into the study of the cognitive model-cloud model, for qualitative-quantitative dual transformation and further proposes the concept of super-entropy. Cognitive uncertainty inevitably leads to research on artificial intelligence with uncertainty. The Dartmouth Symposium marked the birth of artificial intelligence, with John McCarthy proposing the term "artificial intelligence" as the name of the new cross-discipline.