Rotation in 3D Space
For mapping activities, in general, and navigation applications, in particular, we encounter different coordinate systems that exhibit different spatial and rotational relationships (i.e., the coordinate systems might have different origins while having axes that are not parallel to each other). The coordinate systems of major interest include (1) geodetic coordinate system, (2) Earth-centered Earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinate system, (3) local North-East-Down (NED)/East-North-Up (ENU) coordinate system, (4) vehicle-specific NED/ENU coordinate system, (5) vehicle-body coordinate system, and/or (6) sensor coordinate system. Further discussion of coordinate systems can be found in Maling (2013). The following paragraphs briefly describe such coordinate systems.