chapter  6
69 Pages


ByAndrew Sarangan

Lithography is a technique used for creating structures in the lateral direction, similar to thin-film deposition that was used for creating precise structures in the vertical direction. Photolithography is a subset of lithography that uses photons to define the lateral structures. This chapter discusses the basic information for working with lithography tools in the laboratory. Mercury vapor lamps are the most widely used UV light sources in photolithography. Contact mask lithography is conceptually the most straightforward system. The biggest advantage of contact photolithography is the simplicity of the equipment. The refractory optical components are relatively simple and are primarily used for creating a uniform illumination profile, not for imaging lithographic features. Projection lithography system can be thought of as an inverse of the optical microscope. Laser interference lithography is sometimes described as the poor man’s wafer-scale nanolithography system. In photolithography, the most common organosilane is hexamethyldisilazane, and it is used to increase the water repellent property of the substrate surface.