This chapter discusses the significance of industrial biotechnology and explains the large-scale production of biomolecules using bio-reactors. It describes types of fermenters and their applications and explores biosafety issues and automation of industrial plants. The chapter examines product validation and regulation of biotechnology products and outlines industrial applications of microbes, plants, and mammalian cells in biotechnology product development. Production methods in industrial microbiology bring together raw materials, microorganisms, and a controlled favorable environment to produce the desired substance. The essence of an industrial process is the combination of the right organism, an inexpensive substrate, and the proper environment to produce high yields of a desired product. The success of an industrial fermentation process chiefly depends on the strain of the microorganism used. Microorganisms of industrial importance are usually bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and algae. These organisms occur virtually everywhere, such as in air, water, soil, surfaces of plants and animals, and in plant and animal tissues.