This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book presents case-based modelling, planning and evaluation of transport systems operating within different transport modes. Each case has been ultimately considered as a kind of ‘transport system’ to be elaborated, i.e. modelled, planned and/or evaluated. The planning of transport systems has been considered in a more general way, though some of the planning steps are illustrated with some real-life cases. Modelling, planning and evaluation are carried out for cases under systems operated by the rail, road, air and sea transport modes and for both passengers and goods/freight shipments. Under the sea transport mode, the case of an intercontinental supply chain operated by container ships of different sizes including the mega ones is taken up for consideration. The term ‘transport systems’ has been ultimately used for particular cases concerning different transport modes.